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Health: a blessing from God

Posted by Arqustany Putra Monday, September 21, 2009


Islam considers health to be one of the greatest blessings to have been given to human beings by God. Indeed, it is considered the greatest blessing after faith itself. The Prophet said: "There are two blessings which many people do not appreciate: health and leisure". He also said: "No blessing other than faith is better than well-being". As an aspect of grace, man should express gratitude to God for it, and it should be properly looked after.
Good health is something for which we are accountable to God. The Prophet said: "The first thing every servant of God will have to account for on the Day of Judgment is that he will be asked by God: Have I not given you a healthy constitution and have I not quenched your thirst with cold water?"1 The Prophet also said: "No one will be allowed to move from his position on the Day of Judgment until he has been asked how he spent his life; how he used his knowledge; how he earnt and spent his money; and in what pursuits he used his health".2
It is part of the duty of every Muslim, therefore, to safeguard this blessing and not to allow any change to overcome it through ill usage. Otherwise, he will be severely punished, according to God’s immutable laws. The Quran states: Anyone who tampers with God’s grace after it has been bestowed on him will find God to be stern in punishment. (2:211) and God would not alter any grace He has bestowed on a folk unless they alter what they themselves have. (8:53)
The preservation of this blessing can only be achieved through taking good care of one’s health and taking every measure to maintain and enhance it. On the basis of this principle, every Muslim should make sure of doing whatever doctors confirm to be conducive to the preservation of good health. Moreover, the Quran and the sunna contain teachings which show every Muslim how to protect his health generally and how to take care of each of his organs. Numerous examples can be given. Prominent among these is wudhu (ablution), which Islam regards as compulsory whenever it is invalidated. We are strongly recommended to repeat it in many cases and situations. The Prophet said: "The door to prayer is opened with purification"3. Another version of this hadith4, states: "The door to prayer is opened with ablutions". Indeed, the Prophet "used to perform his ablutions for every single prayer"5. He used to say: "Only a believer maintains his ablutions"6, and also: "Ablution is part of being faithful"7. Moreover, a person who is in a state of ritual impurity after sexual intercourse (janaba) is recommended to perform ablutions if he wants to eat or to go to bed. The Prophet was asked whether such a person may sleep, eat or drink before having a bath. He answered: "Yes, if he has performed his ablutions as he does for prayer"8. He is also recommended to perform ablutions if he wants to have intercourse with his wife a second time: "If any of you has sexual intercourse with his wife and wishes to repeat it, he should perform ablutions first"9. We are recommended to perform ablutions before we go to bed: "When you go to bed perform ablutions as you do when you want to pray"10. Also if we get angry or have slandered another, when entering the mosque, making the call to prayer, delivering a sermon, after visiting a graveyard, or touching or carrying a dead person, and before reading the Quran.
Another act of worship which also helps to maintain good health is taking a shower, or ghusl. This is compulsory when one is in the state of ritual impurity. We read in the Quran: If you are defiled (following sexual intercourse or a wet dream) then purify yourselves. (5:6) God also says: Believers, do not attempt to pray when you are under the influence of drink, until you know what you are saying; nor in a state of impurity, except when just passing through a mosque, until you have taken a shower. (4:43) The Prophet also recommended his followers to have a shower on many occasions such as on Fridays. He said: "It is a duty owed to God by every Muslim to have a full shower once every seven days, during which he washes his head and his body"11. He also said: "He who comes to Friday prayer should first have a shower"12. Bathing is also recommended on the occasion of the two feasts. Taking a shower is also recommended for entering into the state of consecration (ihram), whether for pilgrimage or umra (mini-pilgrimage), after washing the body of a deceased person in preparation for burial, for praying for rain or eclipse of the sun, before secluding oneself for prayer, when body odour becomes too strong, and before attending any social gathering.
Islamic teachings are not confined to general cleanliness, but also take care of local cleanliness, such as washing one’s hands. The Prophet "used to wash his hands before eating"13. We are also recommended to clip our nails, for the Prophet said: "Five practices are part of natural cleanliness: circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, plucking out the armpit hair, cutting the nails and trimming the mustache"14. A Muslim is also supposed to keep the feet clean, for the Prophet "used to rub in between his toes with his little finger when he performed his ablutions"15. He also said: "Woe to heels (from the punishment of hell if they are not washed). Perform the ritual of ablution properly"16.
Islamic teachings also take care of the cleanliness of one’s mouth. We are required to rinse our mouths, as the Prophet said: "When you perform ablutions, rinse your mouth"17. He also said: "Rinse your mouth after drinking milk, because it contains fat"18. We are also required to keep our gums clean. The Prophet said: "Clean your gums from food and brush your teeth"19. Similarly, we are strongly encouraged to brush our teeth. The Prophet described the process of cleaning one’s teeth as "purification of one’s mouth, and an act that is pleasing to the Lord"20. The Prophet also said: "If I were not afraid that it would be too hard for the community, I would have asked Muslims to brush their teeth whenever they prayed"21. Two other versions of this hadith22 mention that the Prophet would have commanded us to brush our teeth "every time we performed ablutions". These last two versions clarify what the Prophet means when he recommends brushing one’s teeth for every prayer. It is clear that this should be done at the time of performing ablutions, and not as those people do who use a tooth stick to brush their teeth as they stand to offer prayers. All that happens in this case is that a person removes any dirty particles stuck on or in between the teeth and swallows them. The Prophet’s own practice is the best guide to explain his meaning. In a hadith23 we are told that: "The Prophet used to pray two rakaah late at night, and then go and brush his teeth"24. Another hadith25 mentions that the Prophet "would brush his teeth before performing ablutions, every time he woke up from sleep, whether at night or during the day". When the Prophet went into his home, the first action he did "was to brush his teeth"26. Moreover, "the Prophet used to brush his teeth whenever he rose at night to worship"27.
Indeed, the recommendation to brush our teeth frequently does not exempt any one who is fasting. In fact, it may be even more encouraged during fasting. Al-Tabarani, a highly renowned scholar of hadith who has his own collection of authentic hadith, quotes Abdurrahman ibn Ghanm asking Mu’az ibn Jabal, the Prophet’s companion, "‘Should I brush my teeth while fasting?’ He said, ‘Yes’. I asked, ‘At what time of day?’ He said, ‘Morning or late afternoon’. I said, ‘But people discourage that and say that the Prophet has said, ‘The smell of the mouth of a fasting person is more pleasant in God’s sight than the smell of musk’. He said, ‘Glory be to God! The Prophet has ordered them to brush their teeth, and he would not order them to deliberately let their mouths have a foul odour. Nothing good comes of that. Indeed it is bad’".
Another aspect of health protection is to keep clean one’s ears, eyes, nose, hair and genitals. It has been authentically reported that the Prophet "wiped his ears, using his forefingers to clean them from inside and his thumbs on the outside, thus wiping them both inside and out"28. It is also authentically reported concerning cleanliness of the eyes that the Prophet "used to wipe the inner corner of the eye"29. We are also recommended to clean our noses, for the Prophet said: "When any of you perform the ablutions, introduce water into the nose and then blow it out"30. With regard to keeping the hair clean, the Prophet said: "He who has hair should take good care of it"31. Local cleanliness particularly includes the genitals and private parts. The Prophet said: "When you defecate, wipe yourself three times"32. Anas, the Prophet’s servant, said: "When the Prophet defecated, I brought him water to wash with"33. Aisha, the Prophet’s wife, told Muslim women: "Tell your husbands to wash their private parts with water, for I am too shy to tell them so. The Prophet used to do that"34. There are many more hadith on this subject.
* * *
Among the most important of God’s blessings is marriage, which is conducive to the promotion of sexual and psychological health, while it builds the family, the basic unit of society. Hence, God mentions it among His many blessings saying: And among His signs is (the fact) that He has created spouses for you from among yourselves, so that you may console yourselves with them. He has planted affection and mercy between you (30:21) and He has created you from a single soul, and from that soul He created its mate. (4:1) Marriage is the normal practice of God’s messengers, as God has stated in the Quran: We have sent other messengers before your time and given them wives and children (13:38). The Prophet urged his followers to get married, saying: "Marriage is part of my tradition; those who do not follow my tradition are not of my followers"35. He also said: "I also marry women; those who do not follow my tradition do not belong to me"36. Addressing the young men among his followers, the Prophet said: "Young people, those who can afford to marry should do so"37. He censured the deliberate avoidance of marriage38, and said: "I was not ordered to be committed to celibacy"39.
Islam goes a step further than emphasizing that marriage is an individual duty and makes it a social duty as well. Addressing the Muslim community, God said: Facilitate the marriage of those of you who are single. (24:32). He has required those who are unmarried to maintain their chastity until they have the means to get married: Let those who cannot afford to marry live in continence until God enriches them. (24:33) Islam considers celibacy and the refusal to facilitate marriage as leading to depravity. This is evident in the hadith40 which quotes the Prophet as saying: "Should a person whose strength of faith and honesty are, in your view, satisfactory come to you with a proposal of marriage, get him married. Otherwise, there will be persecution in the land and much corruption".
Such an important matter is not left to chance. Hence Islam takes all precautions to ensure its success physically, psychologically, socially and sexually. It specifies the criteria for choosing a wife, as is made clear in the hadith41 which quotes the Prophet as saying: "A wife is chosen for four qualities: her faith, family status, wealth and beauty. Choose the one who is strong in faith". This does not belittle the importance of a wife’s family, property or beauty, but it emphasizes the most important quality, without which all other considerations lose importance, that is, strength of faith. Two more criteria are added in another hadith, one of which guarantees the continuity of family security, stability, love and compassion, as well as the satisfaction of the sexual urge in a legitimate way. That is one of the two objectives of the marriage institution. The other criterion ensures the continuity of human life. The Prophet says: "Marry a loving woman who can give birth to children"42.
One way of ensuring that the marriage is successful is found in the fact that Islam advises a prospective husband to see the woman to whom he is proposing. It does not recommend blind selection. The Prophet says: "If any of you proposes to a woman, he should try to see of her what encourages him to marry her"43. In another hadith44, the Prophet is quoted as saying to one of his companions: "Look at her, for that helps to bring you closer together".
Islam also encourages a similarity in ages between the couple. Both Abu Bakr and Umar proposed to marry Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter. He said to them: "She is too young for you". Then Ali, who was much younger than them, proposed to marry her and the Prophet accepted his proposal and married them45.
Another factor highlighted by Islam is the need to ensure the well-being of offspring. Both men and women are advised to choose their marriage partners on sound basis. The Prophet says: "Make a wise selection for your sperm"46. The factors which help to make the selection a wise one may naturally differ from time to time, so that every means that ensures a wiser choice is taken into consideration, including medical tests.
Islam finds no fault with the sexual relationship within lawful marriage, and does not consider it to be worthy of any reproach or censure. On the contrary, it considers it something which earns reward for the couple. The Prophet says: "In your intercourse there is a benefaction". His companions asked him: "Messenger of God, would one of us have a reward for fulfilling his desire?" He said: "Would he not incur a sin if he were to seek its satisfaction in some unlawful relationship? Similarly, when he fulfils it in a legitimate relationship, he earns a reward"47.
Islam also encourages sexual play before intercourse. The Prophet says: "Let no one of you fall like a camel over his wife, and let there be an emissary between them". When he was asked what he meant by an emissary, he said: "A kiss and a word of tenderness"48. Married couples are encouraged to wait for each other until they have satisfied their desire. The Prophet said: "When you have intercourse with your wife, be true to her. If you have finished your purpose before her, do not rush her but wait until she is satisfied"49. This should be added to the general rule stated in the Quran: The rights of wives (with regard to their husbands) are equal to the (husbands’) rights with regard to them. (2:228)
Islam forbids intercourse during menstruation, as God says in the Quran: Stay away from women during their menstrual periods. (2:222) It allows all positions of intercourse, provided that it is in the vagina. This is evident in the Quranic verse: Your wives are as a tilth unto you: so approach your tilth when or how you will. (2:223) The Prophet says in this connection: "Do not approach women through their anuses".
* * *
A highly important factor of health promotion is proper nutrition. Choosing wholesome food and avoiding what is unwholesome are essential to health. God says in the Quran: Eat of the good things which We have provided for you. (2:173) Eat of what is lawful and wholesome on the earth. (2:168) Describing the Prophet God says: He prohibits them from all that is foul. (7:157)
To abstain from eating without a valid reason is contrary to health protection. Hence, Islam does not approve of it. God says in the Quran: Do not forbid yourselves the wholesome things God has made lawful for you. (5:87)
Healthy nutrition means having a balanced diet, in order to maintain the balance that God has established in all matters, and to which reference is made in the Quran: And He enforced the balance. That you exceed not the bounds; but observe the balance strictly; and fall not short thereof. (55:7–9)
Healthy nutrition means a diet balanced in quantity. Eating too much is harmful, as it causes disorders of the digestive system. It is also an indirect cause of diseases of affluence such as diabetes, hypertension and vascular diseases leading to angina and heart attack, as well as diseases of the brain arteries, causing stroke and paralysis. This proves the old saying that the "stomach is the home of ill health", whether directly or indirectly, and is responsible for some of the most serious diseases. Eating too much is contrary to Islamic teachings. In the Quran we read: Eat and drink, but avoid excess. (20:81) According to a hadith50, the Prophet said: "No human being fills a container to worse effect than he fills his own stomach. It is sufficient for a human being to have a few bites to keep himself fit (which means that it is sufficient to have only what one needs to maintain strength and well-being). If he must eat (or according to another version "If a human being cannot resist the temptation..."), then let him use one-third for food, one-third for drink and one-third for breathing". Another authentic hadith51 quotes the Prophet as saying: "The food of one person will be sufficient for two, and the food of two people will be sufficient for four, and the food of four will be sufficient for eight".
Healthy nutrition also means a diet balanced in its contents. This means that it must have a mixture of the different types of food which God has graciously provided for His creation, so that it satisfies all the body needs in terms of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, salts and vitamins. Most of these are mentioned in the Quran: He created cattle which give you warmth, benefits and food to eat. (16:5) It is He who subdued the seas, from which you eat fresh fish. (16:14) Referring to vegetarian food, God says: It is He who sends down water from the sky... with which He brings up corn, olives, dates and grapes and other fruit. (16:11) Milk and honey are also mentioned: In cattle too you have a worthy lesson. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies, between the chyle and the blood: pure milk, a pleasant beverage for those who drink it. (16:66) From within their (i.e. the bees’) bellies comes forth a fluid of many hues, that provides people with a cure (of illnesses). (16:69) Elsewhere in the Quran God says: We have made the camels a part of God’s rites. They are of much benefit to you. (22:36) Eat of these fruits when they ripen. (6:141) And from it (the earth) we produced grain for their sustenance. (36:33)
Islam prefers wholemeal food. An example is the Prophet’s preference for wholemeal bread, as reported in a hadith52which mentions that Umm Ayman once refined some flour to bake bread for the Prophet. He asked her what she was doing, and she replied: "This is a type of food which we used to make back home, and I thought of baking it for you". He said: "Put it (the bran) back in then make the dough".
Washing one’s hands before eating is a basic principle. It ensures the cleanliness of the food we handle, so that it is not contaminated with what may be harmful. This protects the stomach from infections. A hadith53, the Prophet’s wife, mentions that "the Prophet used to wash his hands before eating".
Another health rule stresses the need to ensure the cleanliness of food and drink. Islam urges that food should be covered so that nothing falls in it. A hadith54 includes the instruction: "Cover your water container". And in another version55: "Cover your food and drink". The Prophet prohibited the contamination of food and drink with what human bodies discharge, because these discharges carry germs and spread infection. He said: "Let no one urinate in stagnant water"56. He also "prohibited anyone to urinate where he bathes"57. He warns us: "Avoid the two actions that bring people’s curses". When he was asked what these were, he said: "The one who defecates in the road and the shade"58. In a different version he warns against "three actions that bring people’s curses: defecation in water sources, on roads and in the shade"59. Needless to say, defecation in or near water sources is a major factor in transmitting disease, either directly through the polluted water, or indirectly through fruit and vegetables that are irrigated with such water. The reference to the shade in these hadith is significant; a shaded place is a breeding area for germs, as it does not benefit from the sun which kills many germs.
This prohibition on polluting water sources and roads is only one of the Islamic directives which aim to keep the environment healthy. We have a complementary order to keep it clean and pollution free. The Prophet said: "The removal of harmful objects from the road counts as an act of benefaction"60. In an authentic hadith, the Prophet is quoted as saying: "I have been shown the deeds of my followers: both good and bad ones. I found among their good deeds the removal of harmful objects from people’s way"61. Muslim also relates a hadith following Abu Huraira which says: "Faith includes over seventy branches, ... the simplest of which is the removal of any source of harm from the road".
In several places in the Quran, God warns against corrupting the earth. To corrupt or pollute the environment is one aspect of such corruption. Indeed it is the first thing that comes to mind when we read God’s directives, such as: Eat and drink of the sustenance God has provided and do not corrupt the earth with evil. (2:60) Do not corrupt the earth. (7:85) Do not strive for corruption in the land. (28:77) Indeed all prophets have warned their communities against spreading corruption on earth.
Moreover, God specifically mentions the type of corruption which threatens the life of plants and animals. He says: There are some people whose words about this present life may please you. They even call on God to witness what is in their hearts; whereas in fact they are the deadliest opponents. As soon as they hold authority they go over the earth to spread corruption, destroying tilth and progeny. God does not like spoil. (2:205)
On the basis of this verse, Imam Ibn Hazm said: "To deny animals the sort of feed or grazing they need to live and to neglect the irrigation of plants and fruit trees until both die constitute, as God specifically says, the spreading of evil and corruption in the land and destruction of crops and cattle. That is something that God immensely dislikes".
The Prophet was always keen to increase agricultural resources and to expand the healthy environment. He said: "Any trees a Muslim may plant, and any seeds he may cultivate from which man or animal, or any other creature, eats, count as an act of benefaction"62. He also said: "Whoever cultivates land that has been dead, that land becomes his own"63. However, he strictly forbade the cutting of trees. He said: "Whoever cuts a tree (unnecessarily) will have his head thrown directly into Hell"64.
The Prophet was the first to create protected areas in which it was prohibited to cut any tree or kill any animal. The Prophet declared Medina within a 12 mile belt as a natural reserve: trees were not to be felled or cut, except to cut a stick to drive a camel65. Another hadith66 mentions that the Prophet used to "prohibit the felling of any trees in Medina". He also said of Medina: "Its game may not be frightened, and none of its trees may be cut, except what a man may cut of it to feed his camel"67. He also said: "I prohibit all the district in between the two volcanic areas: its trees may not be felled, and its game may not be killed"68. He also protected the valley of Wajj in Taif, saying: "It is prohibited to kill or fell the game and trees of Wajj"69.
* * *
An important means of health protection and promotion is to give to each part of our bodies its due. The Prophet said: "Your eyes have a claim against you"70. One must not overburden oneself: "Bear only what you can cope with"71. This should be accompanied by increasing physical fitness through exercise and sport. The Prophet said: "A physically able believer is better than a weak believer"72. He also said: "Your body has a [human] right of you"73, and "Be keen to do what is of benefit to you"74.
* * *
In return for all these ways and means of protecting and promoting our health that have been mentioned above, we are strongly warned against making any attempt to alter this aspect of God’s grace. If we do, we will pay a very heavy price. This is clearly highlighted in the hadith75: "When gross immoral conduct becomes widespread in any community to the extent that they unashamedly publicize it, plague and other diseases unknown in their past generations will spread quickly among them". God has categorically forbidden all foul and sinful practices, regardless of their nature. He says in the Quran: You shall not commit foul sins, whether openly or in secret. (6:151) Another Quranic directive states: Say: My Lord has forbidden all atrocities, whether overt or disguised, and harm. (7:33)

1. Authenticated by Al-Hakim and agreed upon by Al-Zahabi as narrated by Al-Tirmizi, Ibn Hibban, Al-Hakim and others.
2. Authenticated by Al-Tirmizi as reported by Abu Barza al-Aslami.
3. Narrated by Ibn Majah and Al-Tirmizi following the Caliph Ali.
4. Related by Al-Tirmizi on the authority of Jaber.
5. Narrated by Al-Tirmizi following Anas ibn Malik.
6. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Thawban.
7. Authenticated by Al-Tirmizi as reported by Abu Malik al-Ashari.
8. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Jaber ibn Abdullah.
9. Narrated by Muslim and ibn Majah following Abu Saeed.
10. Agreed upon as reported by Al-Bara ibn Azib
11. Agreed upon as reported by Abu Huraira.
12. Agreed upon as reported by Ibn Omar.
13. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Abu Huraira.
14. Agreed upon as reported by Abu Huraira.
15. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Al-Mustawrid ibn Shaddad.
16. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Abdullah ibn Amr.
17. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Lakit ibn Sabira.
18. Narrated by Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah following Ibn Abbas.
19. Narrated by Al-Hakeem al-Tirmizi in his book Nawader al-usul following Abdullah ibn Bishr al-Mazini.
20. Narrated by Al-Nasa’i following Ibn Khuzaima following Aisha.
21. Agreed upon as reported by Abu Huraira.
22. Ibn Khuzaima following Abu Huraira, and Al-Tahawi, Al-Baihaqi and Ahmad following Abdurrahman ibn Aouf
23. Related by Ibn Majah on the authority of Ibn Abbas.
24. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Ibn Abbas.
25. Related by Abu Dawood on the authority of Aisha.
26. Narrated by Muslim following Aisha.
27. Agreed upon as reported by Huzaifa
28. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Ibn Abbas.
29. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Abu Umama.
30. Narrated by Muslim following Abu Huraira.
31. Narrated by Abu Dawood.
32. Narrated by Ibn Hazm in Al-muhalla following the chain of the Zuhri’s nephew Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Muslim.
33. Agreed upon as reported by Anas.
34. Narrated by Al-Tirmizi following Aisha.
35. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Aisha.
36. Narrated by Muslim following Anas.
37. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Ibn Masoud.
38. Narrated by Al-Nasa’i following Aisha and Samura ibn Jundub.
39. Narrated by Al-Darimi following Saad ibn Abu Waqqas.
40. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Abu Huraira.
41. Agreed upon as reported by Abu Huraira
42. Narrated by Al-Nasa’i and Abu Dawood following Maakil ibn Yassar.
43. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Jaber.
44. Related by Al-Tirmizi, Al-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah following Al-Mughira ibn Shuaba.
45. Narrated by Al-Nasa’i following Buraida.
46. Narrated by Ibn Majah, Al-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim following Aisha.
47. Narrated by Muslim following Abu Zarr.
48. Narrated by Al-Dailami in Musnad al-firdous.
49. Authenticated by Abu Yaala and narrated by Al-Sanaani in Al-musannaf following Anas
50. By Al-Miqdam ibn Maady Karib as related by Al-Tirmizi and others.
51. Narrated by Muslim following Jaber
52. Related by Ibn Majah.
53. Related by Al-Nasa’i on the authority of Aisha.
54. Related by Ibn Majah following Jaber.
55. Related by Al-Bukhari following Jaber.
56. Narrated by Ibn Majah following Abu Huraira.
57. Narrated by Al-Tirmizi following Abdullah ibn Mughaffil.
58. Narrated by Muslim following Abu Huraira.
59. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Muaaz ibn Jabal.
60. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Abu Zarr.
61. Narrated by Muslim and Ibn Majah following Abu Zarr
62. Narrated by Muslim following Jaber.
63. Narrated by Al-Tirmizi following Jaber.
64. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Abdullah ibn Habashi.
65. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Adi ibn Zaid.
66. Related also by Abu Dawood following Saad ibn Abu Waqqas.
67. Narrated by Abu Dawood following Ali.
68. Narrated by Imam Ahmad followig Saad ibn Abu Waqqas.
69. Narrated by Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawood following Al-Zubair
70. Agreed upon as reported by Abdullah ibn Amr.
71. Agreed upon as reported by Aisha
72. Narrated by Muslim following Abu Huraira.
73. Narrated by Muslim following Abdullah ibn Amr.
74. Narrated by Muslim and Ibn Majah following Abu Huraira.
75. Narrated by Ibn Majah and Abu Nouaim following Abdullah ibn Amr.

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